In this subsection we study a sufficient condition for a chocolate bar to have a Grundy number .

In our proofs, it will be useful to have the disjunctive sum of a chocolate bar to the right of the bitter square and a single strip of chocolate bar to the left, as in Figures 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6. We will denote such a position by , where is the length of the single strip of chocolate bar and are coordinates of . Figures 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 give some examples of the coordinate system. For the disjunctive sum of the chocolate bar game with to the right of the bitter square and a single strip of chocolate bar to the left, we will show that the -positions are when , so that the Grundy number of the chocolate bar is .

Example 3.1. Examples of coordinates of chocolate bar games.

Figure 3.1.

{4,7,12}

Figure 3.2.

{3,5,10}

Figure 3.3.

{0,4,6}

Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.6.

is the set that contains all the positions that can be reached from the position in one step (directly).

Definition 3.1. For , we define

, where .

The following condition in Definition 3.2 is a sufficient condition for a chocolate bar to have a Grundy number .

Definition 3.2. Let be a function of into that satisfies the conditions of Definition 2.1. and the following condition .

Suppose that

(3.1) |

for some and some natural number . Then we have

(3.2) |

Remark 3.1. The condition of Definition 3.2 is equivalent to the following condition .

Suppose that for and

Let be a natural number. Then for any for there exist for such that

The condition of Definition 3.2 is very abstract, so we present some examples of functions that satisfy condition of Definition 3.2 in Lemma 3.1 and Lemma3.2.

Lemma 3.1. Let for some natural number . Then satisfies the condition of Definition 3.2. We prove the contraposition of the condition of Definition 3.2. We suppose that Equation (3.2) is false. Then there exist and a natural number such that

(3.3) |

We prove that Equation (3.1) is false. From the inequality in (3.3), we have

and hence

(3.4) |

From the inequality in (3.4), we have

Therefore we have

This shows that Equation (3.1) is false. Therefore, we have completed the proof of this lemma.

Lemma 3.2. Let and for such that . Then satisfies the condition of Definition 3.2. We prove the contraposition of the condition of Definition 3.2. Suppose that Equation (3.2) is false. Then for a natural number

(3.5) |

We prove that Equation (3.1) is false. Let and such that and . Then by the inequality in (3.5), we have

(3.6) |

By the inequality in (3.6), we have

(3.7) | |||

(3.8) |

By the inequalities in (3,7) and (3.8), we have

This shows that Equation (3.1) is false. Therefore we have completed the proof.

In the remainder of this subsection we assume that is the function that satisfies the condition in Definition 3.2. Our aim is to show that the disjunctive sum of the chocolate bar game with to the right of the bitter square and a single strip of chocolate bar to the left have -positions when , so that the Grundy number of the chocolate bar is .

We need Lemma3.6and Lemma3.7 for this aim. Lemma 3.6 implies that from a position of the disjunctive sum such that you always have a option that leads to a position for which the nim-sum of the coordinates is . Lemma 3.7 implies that from a position of the disjunctive sum such that any option leads to a position for which the nim-sum of the coordinates is not .

To prove Lemma 3.6 and Lemma 3.7 we need some properties of the function that satisfies the condition in Definition 3.2. These properties are proved in Lemma 3.3, Lemma 3.4 and Lemma 3.5.

Lemma 3.3. Suppose that

(3.9) |

Then, for any natural number ,

Proof. Let for . Then, by the inequality in (3.9),

and hence

(3.10) |

Let for . By the inequality in (3.10), Definition 3.2 and Remark 3.1, there exist for such that

Lemma 3.4.

Suppose that for some natural number

(3.11) |

Then

Suppose that

Then

We prove . Let for . Then, by Remark 3.1, there exist for such that . Then, by the inequality in (3.11), we have

and hence we have the inequality in (3.12) or Relation (3.13).

(3.12) |

There exists such that

(3.13) |

Then, by the inequality in (3.12) or Relation (3.13),

We prove . This is the contraposition of the proposition in of this lemma.

Lemma 3.5. Suppose that

(3.14) |

Then

Proof. Let and . Then, by the inequality in (3.14), we have , and statement of Lemma 3,4 implies . Therefore we have completed the proof of this lemma.

If the nim-sum of the cooridinates of a position is not 0, then by Definition 3.1and the following Lemma 3.6, there is always an option that leads to a position whose nim-sum is 0.

Lemma 3.6. Suppose that and

(3.15) |

Then at least one of the following statements is true.

for some such that .

for some such that .

for some such that and .

for some such that and .

Proof. Let , and . If , then this lemma is obvious. We assume that . Suppose that there exists a non-negative integer such that for and

(3.16) |

Case Suppose that . Then, we define by for , and for . Then we have and . Therefore, we have statement of this lemma.

Case Suppose that . Then, by the method that is similar to the one used in , we prove that for some such that . Therefore we have statement of this lemma.

Case We suppose that

(3.17) |

For , let

(3.18) |

Let for . By the inequality in (3.16) and Equation (3.17), we have , and hence

(3.19) |

Subcase If , then we have statement of this lemma.

Subcase Next we suppose that

(3.20) |

By the inequality in (3.15), we have , and hence by Lemma 3.3 and (3.18)

(3.21) |

By the inequalities in (3.21) and (3.20), there exists a natural number such that

(3.22) | |||

(3.23) |

By the inequalities in (3.21) and (3.23),

(3.24) |

By the inequality in (3.22) and of Lemma 3.4,

(3.25) |

By the inequality in (3.23),

(3.26) |

By the inequalities in (3.25) and (3.26), we have

(3.27) |

We construct and by assigning values to and for . First, for , let

(3.28) |

and let

(3.29) |

and

Since and , by the inequality in (3.27)

(3.30) |

By the inequality in (3.30) and Lemma 3.5, we have

(3.31) |

Next we prove the inequality in (3.32) for any recursively.

(3.32) |

By the inequality in (3.31), we have the inequality in (3.32) for . We suppose the inequality in (3.32) for some natural number such that . Then we have the inequality in (3.33) or the inequality in (3.36). Our aim is to prove (3.35) and (3.38) by using these inequalities.

If

(3.33) |

then let and . Since , by the inequality in (3.33) we have

(3.34) |

Note that . By Lemma 3.5 and the inequality in (3.34),

(3.35) |

If

(3.36) |

then let and .

Since , the inequalities in (3.36) and (3.32) give

(3.37) |

Then, by the inequality in (3.37) and Lemma 3.5, we have

(3.38) |

In this way we get the inequality in (3.35) or the inequality in (3.38) by the inequality in (3.32). Note that the inequality in (3.35) and the inequality in (3.38) are the same inequality. By continuing this process we have

Therefore, we have By iequalities (3.19), (3.24), (3.29) and Equation (3.28), we have and . Therefore, we have statement of this lemma. If the nim-sum of the cooridinates of a position is 0, then by Definition 3.1 and the following Lemma 3.7, any option from this position leads to a position whose nim-sum is not 0.

Lemma 3.7. If and , then the following hold:

for any such that .

for any such that .

for any such that .

for any such that and . Statements , and of this lemma follow directly from Definition 1 (the definition of nim-sum).

We now prove statement . We suppose that for some such that . We also suppose that

(3.39) |

By , we have . Hence, by Lemma 3.3, we have

(3.40) |

Since and , Relation (3.39) gives

(3.41) |

By the inequalities in (3.40) and (3.41), we have

Hence, for ,

(3.42) |

Since , we have

(3.43) |

By Relation (3.39), Equation (3.42) and Equation (3.43), we have , and hence .

Let and and and .

Let and be the sets defined in Definition 3.3. Then the following hold:

If we start with a position in , then any option (move) leads to a position in .

If we start with a position in , then there is at least one option (move) that leads to a position in .

Since that is defined in Definition 3.1 contains all the positions that can be reached from the position in one step, we have statements and by Lemma 3.7 and Lemma 3.6 respectively.

Theorem 3.1. Let and be the sets defined in Definition 3.3. is the set of -positions and is the set of -positions of the disjunctive sum of the chocolate bar game with to the right of the bitter square and a single strip of chocolate bar to the left. If we start the game from a position , then Lemma 3.8 indicates that any option we take leads to a position in . From this position , Lemma 3.8 implies that our opponent can choose a proper option that leads to a position in . Note that any option reduces some of the numbers in the coordinates. In this way, our opponent can always reach a position in , and will finally win by reaching . Note that position represent the bitter square itself, and we cannot eat this part. Therefore is the set of -positions.

If we start the game from a position , then Lemma 3.8 means that we can choose a proper option that leads to a position in . From , Lemma 3.8 implies that any option taken by our opponent leads to a position in . In this way we win the game by reaching . Note that our opponent cannot eat the bitter part. Therefore is the set of -position

Theorem 3.2 Let be the function that satisfies the condition in Definition 3.2. Then the Grundy number of is .

Proof. By Theorem 3.1, a position of the sum of the chocolate bars is a -position when . Therefore, Theorem 1.1 implies that the Grundy number of the chocolate bar to the right is .

By Theorem 3,2, the condition of Definition 3.2 is a sufficient condition for the chocolate bar to have the Grundy number . Lemma 3.1, Lemma 3.2 and Theorem 3.2 imply that chocolate bar games in Figure 2.1, Figure 2.2, Figure 2.3 and Figure 2.4 have the Grundy number .

In the next subsection we prove that the condition of Definition 3.2 is a necessary condition for the chocolate bar to have the Grundy number .